Scientific Live appreciate your participation in this Conference. Every Conference is divided into several sessions of subfields. Select the Subfield of your choice please.
Vaccines play an important role in keeping us healthy. They protect us from serious and sometimes deadly diseases like haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and measles. A vaccine is made from very small amounts of weak or dead germs that can cause diseases such as viruses, bacteria, or toxins. It prepares your body to fight the disease faster and more effectively so you won't get sick. Immunization is the process of becoming immune to protected against a disease. Immunization can also mean the process of getting vaccinated. Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material a vaccine to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen. Vaccines can prevent or ameliorate infectious disease. When a sufficiently large percentage of a population has been vaccinated, herd immunity results. The effectiveness of vaccination has been widely studied and verified. Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases; widespread immunity due to vaccination is largely responsible for the worldwide eradication of smallpox and the elimination of diseases such as polio, measles, and tetanus from much of the world.
Vaccines have provided a safe and effective means of preventing a number of infectious diseases. The safety of some vaccines has been questioned in recent years, the currently available vaccines are more than a millionfold safer than the diseases they are designed to prevent. Vaccines should always be used in conjunction with other public health interventions. Not only are some vaccines available via injection but other vaccines are also given orally or intranasally. New vaccines are being studied for topical and intravaginal use. In addition, new systems are being developed for more efficient production of vaccines especially for influenza. Vaccines are currently available for only a limited number of viral and bacterial diseases. In the future it is anticipated that safe and effective vaccines will be developed against a number of other viral and bacterial infections as well as fungal and protozoan diseases.
New vaccines are constantly being researched and developed. There has been a steady progression of vaccine development that has led to an expanding list of licensed vaccines. New combination vaccines have been introduced which can prevent several diseases at once as well as the development of an influenza vaccine which is delivered intranasally. Vaccines are effective at combating diseases, as shown by the success of smallpox eradication, the impressive progress towards polio eradication, the significant achievements in measles mortality reduction and many others. New safe and effective vaccines must be developed for a variety of infections of public health importance against which no effective preventive intervention measure is either available or practical. In addition, appropriate mechanisms should be put in place to ensure access for all children to the needed vaccines. To meet these challenges a new paradigm needs to be built among all stakeholders of immunization, including countries, industry, research institutions, foundations and international agencies like the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF).
A recombinant vaccine is a vaccine produced through recombinant DNA technology. This involves inserting the DNA encoding an antigen such as a bacterial surface protein that stimulates an immune response into bacterial or mammalian cells, expressing the antigen in these cells and then purifying it from them. Recombinant DNA technology in recent years has become a boon to produce new generation vaccines. By this approach some of the limitations of traditional vaccine production could be overcome. In addition several new strategies involving gene manipulation are being tried to create novel recombinant vaccines. Subunit, recombinant, polysaccharide, and conjugate vaccines use specific pieces of the germ like its protein, sugar or capsid a casing around the germ. Because these vaccines use only specific pieces of the germ they give a very strong immune response that's targeted to key parts of the germ.
A synthetic vaccine is a vaccine consisting mainly of synthetic peptides, carbohydrates, or antigens. They are usually considered to be safer than vaccines from bacterial cultures. Creating vaccines synthetically has the ability to increase the speed of production. This is especially important in the event of a pandemic. The world's first synthetic vaccine was created in 1982 from diphtheria toxin by Louis Chedid, a scientist from the Pasteur Institute and Michael Sela from the Weizmann Institute. In 1986, Manuel Elkin Patarroyo created the SPf66, the first version of a synthetic vaccine for Malaria. During the H1N1 outbreak in 2009, vaccines only became available in large quantities after the peak of human infections. This was a learning experience for vaccination companies. Novartis Vaccine and Diagnostics among other companies developed a synthetic approach that very rapidly generates vaccine viruses from sequence data in order to be able to administer vaccinations early in the pandemic outbreak. Synthetic Vaccines are developed by way of chemically synthesizing virus genomes and growing them in tissue culture cells. Phase I data of UB-311, a synthetic peptide vaccine targeting amyloid beta, showed that the drug was able to generate antibodies to specific amyloid beta oligomers and fibrils with no decrease in antibody levels in patients of advanced age.
Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis can be caused by viruses, other infectious agents, alcohol, and other chemicals. The two viruses that most commonly infect the liver are the hepatitis A virus and the hepatitis B virus. Although their names are similar these viruses are not related. They differ in the way they are transmitted from person to person and their ability to cause chronic infection. Hepatitis A is caused by a virus which is spread predominately through the fecal-oral route when small amounts of infected fecal matter are inadvertently ingested. Infected individuals shed large amounts of the virus in their stool, starting about two weeks before symptoms present, and continue shedding the virus in their stool for one to three months. Close contact with an infected person increases the chances of contracting the virus. Children are particularly contagious because they have lower standards of hygiene and may not appear sick. The hepatitis A virus also may be spread by ingestion of food or water that is contaminated by infected individuals. Much less commonly contaminated needles or blood may spread hepatitis A.
Clinical Immunology involves original research on the molecular and cellular bases of immunological disease. Clinical immunology has developed very significantly as a specialty over the last twenty years as has the understanding of the immunological basis of many diseases and the development of immunological therapies. Indeed it is difficult to think of a specialty that has not developed an immunological dimension in this time. The basic immunological mechanisms which underlie an effective immune response and the clinical disorders results when the processes are deficient or disordered. The basic science description is of necessity limited in scope and detail. Further research studies on the basic cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in immune defense systems.
How, why, and when specific T and B lymphocytes respond against infection follow explicit rules and how this can be assessed experimentally depends crucially on the methodology used. We discuss the parameters of receptor specificity and antigen that determine whether an immune response can be accurately measured against model antigens and how this relates to protection against a given pathogen. We suggest that antigen structure, localization, dose, and time during which antigen is available are all decisive factors in regulating an immune response. Raising an immune response can cost the host significantly because, to some extent, a degree of collateral damage to the host's own cells and tissues is an inevitable side effect and outcome of immunity. Therefore evolution of beneficial immune protection has had to develop in equilibrium with the potentially lethal damage that immune responses can cause immunopathology.
Antigen processing is an immunological process that prepares antigens for presentation to special cells of the immune system called T lymphocytes. It is considered to be a stage of antigen presentation pathways. This process involves two distinct pathways for processing of antigens from an organism's own self proteins or intracellular pathogens like viruses, or from phagocytosed pathogens such as bacteria. Subsequent presentation of these antigens on class I or class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules is dependent on which pathway is used. Both MHC classes I and II are required to bind antigen before they are stably expressed on a cell surface. MHC I antigen presentation typically considering cross-presentation involves the endogenous pathway of antigen processing, and MHC II antigen presentation involves the exogenous pathway of antigen processing.
While the joint distinction between the two pathways is useful, there are instances where extracellular-derived peptides are presented in the context of MHC class I and cytosolic peptides are presented in the context of MHC class II which often happens in dendritic cells.
Autoimmune diseases can affect many parts of the body. The body's immune system protects from diseases and infections. If you have autoimmune disease, your immune system attacks healthy cells in your body by mistake. No one is sure what causes autoimmune diseases. They run in families. Women, particularly African-American, Hispanic-American, and Native-American women have a higher risk for some autoimmune diseases. There are more than 80 types of autoimmune diseases, and some have similar symptoms. This makes it hard for your health care provider to know if you really have one of these diseases and if so which one. Getting a diagnosis can be frustrating and stressful. The first symptoms are fatigue, muscle aches and a low fever. The classic sign of an autoimmune disease is inflammation that causes redness, heat, pain and swelling.
Recent advances in vaccine technology stemming from the application of genetic engineering are now providing an opportunity to target new diseases. Scientific progress and these broadened applications will no doubt result in improved health-based outcomes but progress often comes at a significant short-term cost. Although it is true that improved outcomes are the goal of health care technology and that preventing disease is preferable to treatment thus reducing overall costs, confusion persists about the best course going forward. Given the current underutilization of vaccines even when patients have no copayments and the expanding use of vaccines to cover morbidity rather than mortality, managed care organizations (MCOs) are confronted with several questions particularly in terms of benefits, reimbursement, and formulary management. To accept the newer vaccine technology, Managed Care Organizations will require not only improved mortality data but also cost-efficacy data with long-term proven outcomes accompanied by lower medical and pharmacy expenses.
Immunopathology of HIV infections leading to AIDS are reviewed from an evolutionary point of view. Accordingly infectious agents and host defenses have co-evolved to reach balanced states where virus and host survive. While HIV has not quite yet reached optimal balance tuberculosis (TB), leprosy, HBV, HCV in humans or lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) in mice have successfully established persistence. This infectious or infection-immunity is the basis for cellular immunoprotection by antigen activated T cells. Because we cannot imitate this infection-immunity long-term and cannot build polyspecific vaccine combinations covering all possible neutralizing variants yet, vaccines against TB, leprosy, HCV and HIV only protect transiently and incompletely. These non-or-poorly-cytopathic infections infect the next host usually before or at birth while hosts are immunoincompetent. They also infect immunocompetent hosts to persist at low levels concomitant with an ongoing T and B cell immune response that is repeatedly triggered by latent or persistent infection of extralymphatic or lymphatic host cells.
Proper vaccine storage and handling practices play a very important role in protecting individuals and communities from vaccine-preventable diseases. Vaccine quality is the shared responsibility of everyone from the time vaccine is manufactured until it is administered. The Vaccine Storage and Handling involves Managing vaccine inventory and transport; Storing and preparing vaccine; Monitoring vaccine temperature; using and maintaining storage unit and temperature monitoring equipment; preparing for emergency storage, handling, and transport situations; developing standard operating procedures for routine and emergency vaccine management and training staff;? using a temperature buffered probe rather than measuring ambient air temperatures; using a digital data logger with a detachable probe that continuously records and stores temperature information at frequent programmable intervals; using a stand-alone refrigerator and stand-alone freezer units suitable for vaccine storage rather than combination refrigerator + freezer or other units not designed for storing vaccines
Patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases such as RA, IBD or psoriasis are at increased risk of infection; partially because of the disease itself, but mostly because of treatment with immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive drugs. In spite of their elevated risk for vaccine-preventable diseases, vaccination coverage in IMID patients is surprisingly low. This involves the study of the data on vaccine safety and efficacy in IMID patients treated with immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory drugs and formulates best-practice recommendations on vaccination in this population. Especially in the current era of biological therapies, including TNF-blocking agents, special consideration should be given to vaccination strategies in IMID patients. Clinical evidence indicates that immunization of IMID patients does not increase clinical or laboratory parameters of disease activity. Live vaccines are contraindicated in immunocompromized individuals, but non-live vaccines can safely be given
An HIV vaccine have the purpose of protecting individuals who do not have HIV from being infected with the virus is called preventative vaccine, or treating an HIV-infected person through a therapeutic vaccine. There are two approaches to an HIV vaccine. One is an active vaccination approach in which a vaccine aims to induce an immune response against HIV; and a passive vaccination approach in which preformed antibodies against HIV are administered. As of today, there is no licensed HIV vaccine on the market but multiple research projects are on the anvil trying to find an effective vaccine. There is evidence from humans that a vaccine may be possible. Some HIV-infected individuals naturally produce broadly neutralizing antibodies which keep the virus suppressed and these people remain asymptomatic for decades. Potential broadly neutralizing antibodies have been cloned in the laboratory monoclonal antibodies and are being tested in passive vaccination clinical trials. Many trials have shown no efficacy so far. But one HIV vaccine regimen RV 144 has been shown to prevent HIV in some individuals in Thailand.
HPV stands for human papilloma virus. HPVs are a group of more than 150 related viruses. HPV causes most cases of cervical cancer, as well as many vaginal, vulvar, anal, penile, and oropharyngeal cancers (cancers of the throat and tongue). The papilloma viruses are attracted to and are able to live only in certain cells in the body called squamous epithelial cells. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is an inactivated (not live) vaccine which protects against four major types of HPV. These include two types that cause about 70% of cervical cancer and two types that cause about 90% of genital warts. HPV vaccine can prevent most genital warts and most cases of cervical cancer. Protection from HPV vaccine is expected to be long-lasting. But vaccinated women still need cervical cancer screening because the vaccine does not protect against all HPV types that cause cervical cancer.
Transplantation is the process of moving cells, tissues or organs from one site to another for the purpose of replacing or repairing damaged or diseased organs and tissues. However, the immune system poses a significant barrier to successful organ transplantation when tissues/organs are transferred from one individual to another. Immunosuppressive drugs are used to prevent and to treat transplant rejection by dampening the overall immune response. Further research on the immunological mechanisms of rejection will help improve cross matching, diagnosis and treatment, as well as facilitating the discovery of novel strategies for preventing.
Computational immunology is a field of science that encompasses high-throughput genomic and bioinformatics approaches to immunology. The field's main aim is to convert immunological data into computational problems, solve these problems using mathematical and computational approaches and then convert these results into immunologically meaningful interpretations. This session discusses all the possible methods of research through which these branches can be further expanded.
An oncolytic virus is a virus that preferentially infects and kills cancer cells. As the infected cancer cells are destroyed by oncolysis, they release new infectious virus particles or virions to help destroy the remaining tumour. Oncolytic viruses represent a new class of therapeutic agents that promote anti-tumour responses through a dual mechanism of action that is dependent on selective tumour cell killing and the induction of systemic anti-tumour immunity. The molecular and cellular mechanisms of action are not fully elucidated but are likely to depend on viral replication within transformed cells, induction of primary cell death, interaction with tumour cell antiviral elements and initiation of innate and adaptive anti-tumour immunity.
Bioweapon threats could include the deliberate release by attackers of an agent that causes one or more of a variety of different diseases. Category A agents are the highest priority and these are disease agents that pose a risk to national security because they can be transmitted from person to person and/or result in high mortality, and/or have high potential to cause social disruption. Category B agents are moderately easy to disseminate and result in low mortality. Category C agents include emerging disease agents that could be engineered for mass dissemination in the future. Several multi-agency simulations have exposed weaknesses in systems designed to respond to biological emergencies. The successful deployment of vaccines, antibodies, and other medications in a bioweapon event will depend on a number factors, such as how many people the attack has the potential to harm, the stability of the transportation system in an emergency, the availability of viable vaccine and drugs, and the ability of the public health system to communicate with the public and get the vaccines and medications into the people who need them.
Vaccines trick the body into build immunity against infectious diseases without causing the actual disease. Vaccines achieve this by introducing a dead or weakened version of the disease-causing germs (bacteria or virus) to the body’s immune system. Human vaccines are used for infectious diseases to increase the immunization rate of the host organism and helps in eradicating the disease from the population. It is the most effective preventative measure against infectious diseases. Some vaccines offer lifelong immunity. In other cases, booster shots are needed in the form of vaccination.
DNA immunization is a novel technique used to efficiently stimulate humoral and cellular immune responses to protein antigens. This inappropriate gene expression within the host has important immunological consequences, resulting in the specific immune activation of the host against the gene delivered antigen. DNA vaccines have not necessarily met the high clinical expectations and a number of complications need to be overcome.
Veterinary immunizations is to advance the wellbeing and welfare of companion creatures, increment making of domesticated animals in a sparing way, and stay away from creature to-human transmission from local creatures and untamed life. The evolutions of veterinary vaccines are going on through genetically engineered organisms, vectored antigen formulations, and naked DNA injections.
The vaccines in which the desired genes that encode the antigen protein for a specific disease are introduced into the genome of plant tissue by various methods are termed as Plant-based vaccines. The plant-based vaccine production method works by isolating a specific antigen protein, one that triggers a human immune response from the targeted virus. A gene from the protein is transferred to bacteria, which are then used to “infect” plant cells. The plants then start producing the exact protein that will be used for vaccinations
Pediatric immunology is a branch of pediatrics which deals with immunological or allergic disorders of children. Pediatric immunology plays major role in understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the immune system and it has seriously involved in the development of new diagnostic tests and treatment. There are many types of organs in our body which plays vital role in immunological functions. Some of the organs include thymus, bone marrow, spleen and tonsils. In recent years, the widespread of infectious diseases in children has decreased by the paediatric vaccines. The common Paediatric vaccines are Small pox Vaccine, Hepatitis B vaccine, Diphtheria Tetanus and Pertussis Vaccines, Inactivated Polio Vaccine, Measles Mumps and Rubella Vaccine. Infectious diseases were once the leading cause of death of children. Now, less number of deaths of children takes place due to the effective immunization.